For over a century, 105 miles of pipes underneath Manhattan’s streets have delivered steam to some of the city’s oldest and tallest buildings. But once in a while, a pipe explodes – blasting a massive hole into the street and spraying boiling hot steam, water, and asbestos into the air. These catastrophes tend to raise the question: is it time to wean New York off steam?

Sources:
The Bowery Boys Podcast
https://www.boweryboyshistory.com/bowery-boys-first/bowery-boys-podcast

The Lockport Journal
https://www.lockportjournal.com/news/lifestyles/niagara-discoveries-holly-steam-combination-company/article_212b69b0-a484-59ba-ae3b-92c771c78f5d.html

ConEd
https://web.archive.org/web/20060312062632/http://www.coned.com/history/steam.asp

The New York Times
https://www.nytimes.com/1977/12/27/archives/con-eds-steam-system-an-endangered-species-con-eds-steam-system-an.html

History.com
https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/great-blizzard-of-88-hits-east-coast#:~:text=On%20March%2011%2C%201888%2C%20one,powerful%20winds%20from%20the%20storm

The Construction History Society
https://www.jstor.org/stable/41613864?seq=1

NY-Engineers
https://www.ny-engineers.com/blog/local-law-97-of-2019

The City of New York
http://www.nyc.gov/html/gbee/downloads/pdf/TWGreport_2ndEdition_sm.pdf

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